Rasztów — korektywne doświadczenie drogą do osobistej wolności 85
Rasztów - corrective experience as a way to personal freedom 85
Artykuł opisuje historię powstania i rozwoju Ośrodka Leczenia Nerwic w Rasztowie, przedstawioną przez jedną z jego założycielek. Ośrodek ten od lat 60. zajmuje się psychoterapią grupową, ulegając zmianom, pod wpływem politycznych i ekonomicznych transfołrmacji w Polsce.
The author refers to the name of the Institute of Group Analysis "Rasztów". She focuses on analytical roots of client-centred psychotherapy in Poland. They prove to be connected with Dr. Jan Malewski, as well as with the Neurosis Treatment Centre in Rasztów and the clinic in Warsaw established by him in 1963 in the highly socialised healthcare system. The article shows the development of group psychotherapy based on analytical understanding of the source of patients' disorders. The Neurosis Treatment Centre in Rasztów promoted an in-patient, short-term group psychotherapy founded on Foulke's theoretical concept and Witaker's group conflict theory. The treatment programme enabled patients corrective experience (Alexander) through revealing their habitual, unconscious childhood defence mechanisms. They prove inadequate in adult life, thus causing suffering and various neurotic symptoms. Corrective experience allows to look for new satisfactory adaptive mechanisms and unblocks development of the individual. For psychotherapy purposes the team introduced, developed and modified psychodramatic techniques according to the French school of Lebovici. The technique of working with the group was being modified as the team was becoming more familiar with the theory of borderline disorders, together with a better understanding of projective identification mechanisms. The article presents how the Rasztów centre and its team were both developing and regressing within the period of four decades under the influence of political and economic changes. Because of them, the stationary Centre was changed into a Daily Ward whereas the wide clinic offer diminished. At the same time they specified and provided for the team development towards group analysis, which has been confirmed with European certificates, as well as for establishing the Institute of Group Analysis "Rasztów" together with its complete privatisation. They were also the reason why short-term trainings in various forms of group psychotherapy were stopped. In the face of all problems brought about by current reality group experience psychotherapy may enable patients to function better socially and to improve the individual comfort of life.